# 群论笔记 08

## Table of Contents

## Cat 8.1 Function objects, exponential

objects compose a set, arrows compose a home set(can be illustrated as a point), set is object. it's a circle

external hom-set and inner hom-set

because function is a object(set), so we can apply all the previous lectures theory to function * unviersal construction, pattern * product and coproduct * …

Cartesian product, we can generlize it to categorical product.

in order to define a function ,you must ifrst have a product(or ADT)

like if you want to define exponential, you must has a multiplication.

begin with universal construnction : 1. pattern 2. ranking

- pattern components: a,z,g,b
- ranking by unique morphism go back to see the pattern and ranking of product and coproduct.

z' X a -> z X a

a product is a bifunctor, take two make 3nd one alss two function make 3nd one go back to see bifunctor of product.

a unique morphism h exist, such that commute graph exsit –

g' = g * (h X id)

a=>b is fucntion object => is just a symbol

imperative language f(x,y,z) is like f((x,y,z)) a functin one multi arg, is function on a tuple(of args)

g' = g * (h X id) => g' = eval * (h X id)

one h —> one g

??? 25:00 two way of thinking : 1. g is from product(zXa) to b 2. one g for one h

then,

h:: z->(a->b) g:: (z,a)->b

g and h are equalent.

it's something about curry, h is the curry version of g

curry:: ((a, b)->c) -> (a ->(b->c)) curry f = lambda a -> (lamb b -> f(a,b))

uncurry

in haskell: arrow -> will associate with right function call f a b, will associate with left

#### exponential

in Cat people call function object exponential, `a->b`

is `b^a`

Bool->Int for 1 function , he can ONLY get 2 Int, one for true, one fro false;

if refer to type, from Bool to Int, **the number of functions** is just
decided by Int — like some reverse procession ,from return type to
input type

Int X Int, a cartesian product.

it shows you connection between product and function type—exponential, iterative product gives you exponential.

Cartesian closed category — CCC — has terminal object, 1. object\^0 = terminal object 2. object\^1 = object itself 3. object\^n = exponential

Bi-Cartesian closed category — BCCC

we have seen that , * the ADT using product gives you a monoid * the ADT using coproduct gives you a another monoid * the ADT using initial object(void) gives you a monoid * the ADT using terminal object(unit) gives you a monoid TODO * the ADT using exponential gives you a monoid

if we combine them, it will gives you a semi-ring

If we add exponential to it:

## Cat 8.2 Type algebra, Curry-Howard-Lambek isomorphism

### Type algebra

Either b c -> a you will need a case match to implement this function

It's something curry and uncurry

all these definition two side of "=", can replace each other.

like:

def curryFn(b:Int)(c:String):Double = def uncurryFn(c:String): Int=>Double //(b,c)->a = a^(b*c) = (a^b)^c = c ->(b->a)

### Curry-Howard-Lambek

all these stuff also can be used in logic area. This is the basis of famous curry howard isomorphism — proposition as types

lambda calculas

statement can be true of false

proposition correspond to types in programming

true or false / inhabitted or uninhabitted (type has value or not inside)

implication a=>b | a ∨ b | a ∧ b | false | true |

function | Either a b | (a,b) | void | () |

b\^a(exponential) | a × b | a or b | initial obj | terminal objt |

((a=>b), a) -> b

a=>b ∧ a -> b

one-to-one relation between logic an type

mathematic people build a theory in logic; then CS people will take it and think how can I implement this in language, like the linear type or structural type system.